Reach Out Reporter wins again!

Building on its success from the ERA’s, we have yet more great news for our topical news service, Reach Out Reporter.

 

At the 2017 Learning on Screen Awards, Reach Out Reporter scooped up the Education Multimedia Award.

 

Designed to showcase innovative educational media content, the Learning on Screen Awards are the UK’s only celebration of film and media production in education.

 

Made in partnership with Imperial College London, Reach Out Reporter was launched in December 2016 and aims to share the wonder of science by exploring a range of topical science stories every week.

 

A spokesperson for the Learning on Screen Awards said:

This fun online resource provides primary teachers with topical science films and resources to engage their students, highlighting with the latest news and current issues in science. Judges described this production as a valuable classroom resource and praised the range of easily accessible resources available for teachers to use.

 

Find out more information in our press release, or start exploring Reach Out Reporter now!

What can we learn from teachers around the world?

Every four years the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) scores rock the world of education, as students from 30 different countries are ranked according to their performance in mathematics, science and reading.

 

Whether we like standardised assessments or not, tests like PISA have come to be regarded as an accurate reflection of a country’s progress. Education, after all, shapes a country, along with its future leaders and scientists.

 

Over the years, various studies have been conducted to analyse the merits of successful education systems around the world. Immediately after the PISA scores come out, experts take to investigating what countries like Singapore, Finland, Shanghai and Estonia (among others who top the scores) are doing differently. Education has now become a race. And there seems to be no universal, one-size-fits-all formula that can guarantee academic prowess.

 

1n 2015, another wave of PISA scores swept across the world, causing policymakers and educators to hit the books once again in order to uncover the secret behind the continued success of East Asia, Estonia and Finland. But it should lead us to recognise that there is something we are still not doing right, for as long as there is a gap between the performance of these countries and the rest of world. So how many PISA scores is it going to take for us to realise that the problem lies not with students, teachers and policymakers, but rather in our whole approach?

 

Education is not a race. The PISA scores are by no means a way to measure intelligence and aptitude, but are rather markers or indicators to understanding what works and what does not. Analysis of these countries and their successes, however, has fast turned into pitting them against each other – an “anything that works” approach. What we seem to be forgetting in our panic to race to the top of the PISA pyramid is that what works for one country may not necessarily work for another. Each country has a unique set of factors that come into play when it comes to education. Experts believe that culture and policy matter when it comes to achieving successful PISA scores. Yet the PISA results themselves demonstrate that expenditure only plays a part. In poorer countries, the amount of public spending per pupil is associated with higher test scores. But in richer states that spend more than about $50,000 per pupil in total between the ages of 6 and 15, this link falls away. An interesting point to bear in mind is that pupils in Poland and Denmark have, in effect, the same average results in science tests – even though Denmark spends about 50% more per pupil.

 

What we are failing to see here is that there is no common denominator for success. Instead, each of the leading countries is using methods that work for them. While they might share some common factors, each approaches education uniquely. Finland, for example, focuses on an early education, late schooling approach, with an emphasis on developing good social and communication skills along with a joy for learning. Shanghai’s recurring success, on the other hand, is attributed to a home environment that stresses academic discipline at an early age in order to get good grades (and “tiger parents” who make sure their children really do put that effort in). This is also true for most other East Asian countries including Singapore, Hong Kong and South Korea, among others. Shanghai also has an adaptive education policy, along with well-paid teachers. Singapore’s success rides on heavy investment into implementing successful pedagogy techniques, while Estonia’s policy of giving equal opportunities to students of all backgrounds – a remnant from the Soviet days – has helped it rank consistently well in the PISA scores.

 

When the statistics are viewed from this perspective, the answer seems fairly simple. An individualistic approach will allow each country to play on its own strengths and overcome the weaknesses within its educational system. Consulting with teachers will also help policymakers identify problems at a grassroots level, allowing educators to stop struggling students from falling behind. Ultimately, when it comes to education, we really can’t hope to make effective changes without actually including teachers in the discussion.

 

Want to share your thoughts with us? We’d love to hear from you. Please contact Lucy Jackson at ljackson@twig-world.com to get in touch and have your say.

 

Who is accountable for our space junk?

Scientists and accountability have a long history together. Most great inventions have at some point in time created a hazardous byproduct or been put to destructive use, leading their inventors to feel accountable for the damage.

 

A horrified Oppenheimer, when faced with the terrible evidence of the atomic bomb, famously quoted the Bhagavad Gita: “I am become death., the destroyer of worlds.” Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, was distraught at the thought of his legacy being one of destruction. When we take into consideration the current challenges our world is facing – global warming, landfills, plastic toxicity – accountability becomes all the more important.

 

The most recent scientific sphere to demand responsibility is space.

 

Recent news reports on space debris – the remains of various space crafts that either imploded on their own or collided with another satellite – show that “millions of pieces of man-made trash are now orbiting the Earth.”

 

Satellite technology is the foundation upon which many modern conveniences such as communication, navigation, and even national security are based – these satellites are all in danger of collision with the space debris. The US Space Surveillance Network is currently monitoring around 23,000 pieces of space junk, but not all of the debris is detectable, and it only takes a particle as small as a paperclip to cause rapid damage. Only recently, the debris from the 2009 collision between an American commercial communications satellite with a defunct Russian weather satellite forced the crew of the the International Space Station to evacuate to the Soyuz capsule in 2015.

 

Yet initiative for cleaning up the waste is proving to be a tediously slow process, mostly because it is an expensive one. In many ways, it’s similar to pollution and global warming: ignoring it will have consequences. However, scientists are looking into ways of recycling shuttle parts, which is a start in the right direction.

 

With the recent emphasis on STEM and encouraging students to study within STEM fields, it is our responsibility as educators also to teach them accountability. It is important that we prepare the next generation not just to take on the opportunities that science has to offer, but the challenges as well. If we can encourage an entire generation to be accountable, then we are by that logic also shaping future leaders who will learn and carry that responsibility: responsibility towards not just finding cleaner, safer and more sustainable ways of living, but also an accountability towards using new scientific inventions for the improvement of the planet and all its inhabitants.

Painting the world purple and blue: why you should consider becoming a colour chemist

We don’t often associate chemistry with fame and fortune, but in 1856, William Perkin discovered both after accidentally formulating the colour purple – at the time, he was trying to find a cure for malaria. Luckily for Perkin, purple was a highly coveted colour – in fact, laws at the time allowed only the king to wear purple!

 

Until Perkin’s big discovery, purple (or, to be specific, Tyrian purple) was made from the mucus of sea snails. The snails were found in Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coastline of the Mediterranean Sea (known today as Lebanon), and the process of extraction was a smelly one – so much so that it required the dye vats to sit on the edge of the town, leading the Roman author Pliny the Elder to declare purple a “dye with an offensive smell”.

 

Amazingly, given how many were necessary to sate the appetite of emperors and kings, the sea snails managed to avoid extinction up until a few years ago, when they succumbed to the rise in sea temperatures as a result of global warming.

 

So, when 18- year-old Perkin accidentally synthesised the most intense purple ever seen in 1853, it was a big deal. Perkin’s discovery singlehandedly changed purple’s status from a “royal” colour to a colour that everyone could enjoy. His genius, however, continued beyond this discovery. Having discovered purple, Perkin decided to find a way to mass-produce the compound as a dye. He called his mixture mauveine, or, as we know it today, mauve. Perkin’s mauve soon captured the imaginations and desires of the masses. Soon the streets of London and Paris – the fashion capitals of Europe – were ablaze with the colour, causing a trend dubbed “mauveine measles”. The final seal of approval, however, came from royalty itself, when Queen Victoria appeared in a silk gown dyed in mauveine at the Royal Exhibition of 1862.

 

New research has also found that Perkin was a more adept chemist than he was ever given credit for. Dr John Plater, a senior lecturer in chemistry at the University of Aberdeen, has compared a small quantity of the mauveine kept in Manchester’s Museum of Science and Industry to sixpence stamps produced using the dye between 1865 and 1869. Plater found significant differences in the manufacturing process. The museum-stored mauveine used two key ingredients, but the dye used on the majority of stamps analysed contained a very different composition to Perkin’s mauveine, making a different method of synthesis seem quite reasonable. This indicates that Perkin created a subtle variation of his famous dye in order to hide the true formulation from his competitors. Plater’s theory is also backed up with evidence from a famous lecture of Perkin’s in 1896, in which he expressed his concerns about competition.

 

William Perkin went to achieve several more scientific accomplishments in his time, but it is the formulation of mauveine that he is best known for, with the Society of Chemical Industry even creating the Perkin Medal in 1906 to commemorate the discovery of mauve; the first medal was awarded to its namesake at a banquet held in his honour.

 

Of course, the age of accidental discoveries of new colours has not passed us by yet. In 2009, Mas Subramanian – a chemist at the Oregon State University – heated manganese oxide and other chemicals to over 1200°C (2200°F), with one of the reactions accidentally yielding the nearest-perfect blue pigment to date, nicknamed YInMn blue. The colour’s high reflective properties can even be used in paint to help keep buildings cool, as it reflects infrared light. Its winning quality, however, is that YlnMn blue is non-carcinogenic: unlike Prussian or cobalt blue, YlnMn blue is far more stable when exposed to heat or acidic conditions, and doesn’t release cyanide. The pigment has already become popular with artists and designers, with Shepherd Colour Company already having issued a patent to sell the colour.

 

Given the evidence, we think colour chemists (indeed, all chemists) are pretty cool as far as STEM professionals go – not a bad way to achieve fame and fortune, either.

Why NGSS? Why it’s important for science education

Science and innovation has been central to human progress since times immemorial. The invention of the wheel, the industrial revolution and even the recent IT boom are the direct results of scientific innovation leading economic expansion. So it stands to reason that if we are to prepare students to lead the global economy and pursue the diverse employment opportunities out there, we must equip them with a good K–12 science education. There is, however, a discrepancy in science as it is taught in the classroom and science as it is practised in the real world. Up until now, American schools had been following the National Science Education Standards from the National Research Council (NRC) and Benchmarks for Science Literacy from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to teach science in the classroom.

 

The only problem with this scenario is that despite being fairly comprehensive, both of these frameworks were formulated 15 years ago. Our world is developing at an unprecedented rate, and yet we are currently teaching students lessons based on an outdated framework. A further issue at hand is that the application of science in the real world works through evidence-based thinking, which is the opposite of how students are currently being taught. At present, students are learning theory without understanding the underlying principles that make that theory work. Research shows that high school education does not provide students with important skills such as communication and critical thinking. These skills are crucial for both a successful career and for becoming a responsible and informed citizen.

 

Why NGSS?

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) fills in this demand in education that until now had been left unaddressed. The NGSS framework is based on three components of science learning, all of which weld practice to theory. In short, NGSS focuses on developing the habits and skills that scientists and engineers use in day-to-day life. Teachers are no longer the sage on the stage; instead, they guide students to draw their own conclusions based on evidence and reasoning.

 

As the old adage goes: give a poor man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach him to fish and you teach him an occupation that will feed him for a lifetime. The NGSS content is formulated to help students learn how to think rather than telling them what to think. It provides students with the space and encouragement to question, investigate and draw their own inferences based on evidence. Through NGSS, we are preparing future generations to be independent, responsible and proactive before they go out into the world. And no doubt, many of them will change it.

Virtual Learning with Mark Ellis

Virtual reality is the next step in the evolution of education, and we at Twig World are always evolving to keep pace with the latest development in science education. So, it was only natural for us to contribute to Google Expeditions – the best virtual learning resource for the classroom.

 

Also, because we believe in working in partnership with teachers, rather than just delivering a product, we have our very own Mark Ellis speaking at the COBIS Annual Conference, focusing specifically on how schools and educators can get the best out of Google Expeditions.

 

Mark was kind enough to a give us a sneak peak into what he’ll be speaking about.

 

 

Twig: Tell us a little bit about yourself.

 

Mark: I was a teacher in the UK for 11 years, specialising in sixth-form science, before moving to work for an educational charity where I ran national school improvement programmes in STEM and vocational learning. I then moved to the National Science Learning Centre at York for three years, in a business development role. At Twig I am the Head of Professional Development. In my current position, I am involved in every aspect of pedagogy, including working with the content team on advanced content and giving advice on pedagogical approaches in various products.

 

Twig: Can you quickly summarise virtual reality in education?

 

Mark: Virtual reality is an immersive way of learning. It’s learning by seeing and being there in the moment. Obviously, it isn’t always possible to travel physically to say, the top of a pyramid or outer space – that’s where virtual learning comes in. It allows you to travel virtually anywhere, safely. For students, it introduces that bit of excitement to classroom learning and fosters a culture of questioning, which is important in all classrooms.

 

Twig: What have you been doing with virtual learning?

 

Mark: We have partnered with Google Education to deliver Google Expeditions, which are short virtual reality tours around the world. So, you can learn how about how an Aston Martin is made, or how to fly Eurofighter Typhoon.

 

Twig: What are your findings? Would you say that Google Expeditions is a more effective way of learning?

 

Mark: I would say that Google Expeditions is effective in fostering student engagement. If we think about it, what do students want? They want a bit of excitement and something to remember. I think this is a really good way to get children excited about lessons – they come up with questions and actually engage with what they are learning.

 

Twig: What are you speaking about at the conference? Why should people come and listen?

 

Mark: I believe that any multimedia source should be clearly linked to learning outcomes and we want educators to get the most out of virtual learning. So, I’ll be talking about some of the things we learnt about making virtual reality more effective in the classroom, with a definite focus on lesson planning using Google Expeditions.

 

We hope you’re looking forward to Mark’s presentation as much as we are. If you are attending the COBIS conference this year, make sure you pop by stand 84 and say hello!